If you have used ENA in your research, please send your paper and a complete citation to epistemicanalytics+ENA@gmail.com for inclusion in the list below.

If you use any products, services, or data developed or provided by Epistemic Analytics in your research or in any publications or presentations, please read our guidelines for acknowledgment.


Articles In Press

Gašević, D., Joksimović, S., Eagan, B., & Shaffer, D.W. (In Press). SENS: Network analytics to combine social and cognitive perspectives of collaborative learning. Computers in Human Behavior. 

Zhang, S., Liu Q., & Cai, Z. (In Press). Exploring primary school teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in online collaborative discourse: An epistemic network analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology.  

Ruis, A.R., Rosser, A.A., Quandt-Walle, C., Nathwani, J.N., Shaffer, D.W., & Pugh, C.M. (In Press). The hands and head of a surgeon: Modeling operative competency with multimodal epistemic network analysis. American Journal of Surgery

Shaffer, D.W. (In Press). Big data for thick description of deep learning. In K. Millis, D. Long, J. Magliano, and K. Weimer (Eds.), Deep learning: Multi-disciplinary approaches. NY, NY: Routledge/Taylor Francis. 


Andrist, S., Ruis, A. R., & Shaffer, D. W. (In Press). A network analytic approach to gaze coordination during a collaborative task. Computers in Human Behavior, 89, 339-348. 

Sullivan, S. A., Warner-Hillard, C., Eagan, B., Thompson, R., Ruis, A. R., Haines, K., Jung, H. S. (2018). Using epistemic network analysis to identify targets for educational interventions in trauma team communication. Surgery163(4), 938–943.

Wooldridge, A.R, Carayon, P., Shaffer, D.W., & Eagan, B. (2018). Quantifying the qualitative with epistemic network analysis: A human factors case study of task-allocation communication in a primary care team. IISE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering, 8(1), 72–82.

Shaffer, D.W. (2018). Epistemic network analysis: Understanding learning by using big data for thick description. Fischer, F., Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Goldman, S. R., & Reimann, P. (Eds.). International Handbook of the Learning Sciences (pp. 520-531). New York: Routledge. 

Ruis, A.R., Siebert-Evenstone, A.L., Pozen, R., Eagan, B., & Shaffer, D.W. (2018). A Method for determining the extent of recent temporal context in analyses of complex, collaborative thinking. In Kay, J. & Luckin, R (Eds.) Rethinking Learning in the Digital Age: Making the Learning Sciences Count, 13th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS), III, 1625–1626. 

S.S. Fougt, A. Siebert-Evenstone, B. Eagan, S. Tabatabai, and M. Misfeldt. 2018. Epistemic network analysis of students’ longer written assignments as formative/summative evaluation. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Sydney, Australia, March 2018 (LAK’18), 5 pages. 

Herder, T., Swiecki, Z., Fougt, S. S., Tamborg, A. L., Allsopp, B. B., Shaffer, D. W., Misfeldt, M. (2018). Supporting teacher’s intervention in student’s virtual collaboration using a network based model. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Sydney, Australia, March 2018 (LAK’18), 21-25.

Swiecki, Z. & Shaffer, D.W. (2018). Toward a taxonomy of team performance visualization tools. Paper presented at the 13th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS). London, United Kingdom. 

Jones, Tamecia Raishaun. (2018). Developing and testing a K-12 engineering epistemic frame to uncover engineering in the interactions of a high school summer session. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Purdue University.


Shaffer, D.W. (2017). Quantitative Ethnography. Madison, WI: Cathcart Press.

Lund, K., Quignard, M., & Shaffer, D.W. (2017). Gaining insight by transforming between temporal representations of human interaction. Journal of Learning Analytics4(3), 102–122.

Siebert-Evenstone, A.L., Arastoopour Irgens, G., Collier, W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A.R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2017). In search of conversational grain size: Modelling semantic structure using moving stanza windows. Journal of Learning Analytics4(3), 123–139.

Ruis, A.R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2017). Annals and analytics: The practice of history in the age of big data. Medical History61(2), 336–339.

Shaffer, D.W. & Ruis, A.R. (2017). Epistemic network analysis: A worked example of theory-based learning analytics. In C. Lang, G. Siemens, A. Wise, & D. Grasevic (Eds.), Handbook of Learning Analytics (pp. 175–187). Society for Learning Analytics Research.

Cai, Z., Eagan, B., Dowell, N.M., Pennebaker, J.W., Shaffer, D.W., & Graesser, A.C. (2017). Epistemic network analysis and topic modeling for chat data from collaborative learning environment. In X. Hu, T. Barnes, A. Hershkovitz, & L. Paquette (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 104-111). Wuhan, Hubei, China: EDM Society.

Arastoopour Irgens, G. (2017). Connected design rationale: Modeling and measuring engineering design learning. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Madison.


Shaffer, D.W., Collier, W., & Ruis, A.R. (2016). A tutorial on epistemic network analysis: Analyzing the structure of connections in cognitive, social, and interaction data. Journal of Learning Analytics3(3), 9–45.

Arastoopour, G., Shaffer, D.W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A.R., & Chesler, N.C. (2016). Teaching and assessing engineering design thinking with virtual internships and epistemic network analysis. International Journal of Engineering Education32(3B), 1492–1501. 

Csanadi, A., Eagan, B., Shaffer, D. W., Kollar, I., & Fischer, F. (2017). Collaborative and individual scientific reasoning of pre-service teachers: New insights through epistemic network analysis (ENA). In B. K. Smith, M. Borge, E. Mercier, & K. Y. Lim (Eds.), Making a difference: Prioritizing equity and access in CSCL: 12th International Conference on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (Vol. I, pp. 215–222).  

Quardokus Fisher, K. Hirshfield, L., Siebert-Evenstone, A., Arastoopour, G., & Koretsky, M. (2016). Network analysis of interactions between students and an instructor during design meetings. Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education. New Orleans, LA. 

Siebert-Evenstone, A. L., Arastoopour, G., Collier, W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A. R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2016). In search of conversational grain size: Modeling semantic structure using moving stanza windows. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Singapore. 

Collier, W., Ruis, A.R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2016). Local versus global connection making in discourse. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Singapore. 

Andrist, S. (2016). Gaze mechanisms for situated interaction with embodied agents. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Madison. 


Hatfield, D. (2015). The right kind of telling an analysis of feedback and learning in a journalism epistemic game. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 7(2), 1–23. 

Andrist, S., Collier, W., Gleicher, M., Mutlu, B., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Look together: Analyzing gaze coordination with epistemic network analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1016). 

Chesler, N.C., Ruis, A.R., Collier, W., Swiecki, Z., Arastoopour, G., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). A novel paradigm for engineering education: Virtual internships with individualized mentoring and assessment of engineering thinking. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 137(2). 

Arastoopour, G., Swiecki, Z., Chesler, N.C., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Epistemic Network Analysis as a Tool for Engineering Design Assessment. Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education. Seattle, WA. 

Arastoopour, G., Shaffer, D.W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A.R., & Chesler, N.C. (2015). Teaching and Assessing Engineering Design Thinking with Virtual Internships and Epistemic Network Analysis. Paper presented at the Harvey Mudd Design Workshop. Claremont, CA. 


Knight, S., Arastoopour, G., Shaffer, D.W., Shum, S.B., & Littleton, K. (2014). Epistemic networks for epistemic commitments. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Boulder, CO. 


Chesler, N., Arastoopour, G., D’Angelo, C., Bagley, E., & Shaffer, D.W. (2013). Design of a professional practice simulator for educating and motivating first-year engineering students. Advances in Engineering Education 3(3): 1-29. 

Nash, P., & Shaffer, D.W. (2013). Epistemic trajectories: Mentoring in a game design practicum. Instructional Science, 41(4): 745-771. 

Knight, S., Arastoopour, G., Shaffer, D.W., Shum, S.B., & Littleton, K. (2013). Epistemic networks for epistemic commitments. Technical Report KMI-13-03. Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, Netherlands. 

Arastoopour, G. & Shaffer, D.W. (2013). Measuring social identity development in epistemic games. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer Supported Learning. Madison, WI. 

Orill, C.H., Shaffer, D.W., & Burke, J. (2013). Exploring coherence in teacher knowledge using epistemic network analysis. Presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting. San Francisco, CA.


Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N., D’Angelo, C., Shaffer, D.W., Opgenorth, J., Reardan, C., Haggerty, N., & Lepak, C. (2012). Nephrotex: Measuring first-year students’ ways of professional thinking in a virtual internship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Engineering Education. San Antonio, TX.

Orrill, C.H. & Shaffer, D.W. (2012). Exploring connectedness: Applying ENA to teacher knowledge. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Sydney, Australia.

D’Angelo, C. M., Clark, D. B., & Shaffer, D. W. (2012). Epistemic network analysis: An alternative analysis technique for complex STEM thinking. Presented at the National Association of Research on Science Teaching Conference. Indianapolis, IN.


Svarovsky, G.N. (2011). Exploring complex engineering learning over time with Epistemic Network Analysis. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research, 1(2), 19-30. 


Rupp, A. A., Sweet, S., & Choi, Y. (2010). Modeling learning trajectories with epistemic network analysis: A simulation-based investigation of a novel analytic method for epistemic games. Presented at the Educational Data Mining Conference. Pittsburgh, PA.


Shaffer, D.W., Hatfield, D., Svarovsky, G., Nash, P., Nulty, A., Bagley, E., Frank, K., Rupp, A., & Mislevy, R. (2009). Epistemic Network Analysis: A prototype for 21st century assessment of learning. International Journal of Learning and Media 1(2): 33-53. 

Rupp, A., Choi, Y., Gushta, M., Mislevy, R., Thies, M.C., Bagley, E., Nash, P., Hatfield, D., Svarovsky, G., & Shaffer, D.W. (2009). Modeling learning progressions in epistemic games with epistemic network analysis: Principles for data analysis and generation. Paper presented at the Learning Progressions in Science Conference. Iowa City, IA.