Getting Started

To learn more about ENA as a technique and a tool, you may want to start with the following publications:

Shaffer, D.W. Quantitative Ethnography

This is first comprehensive book on quantitative ethnography

ENA Webtool overview

This video provides a basic overview of using the Epistemic Network Analysis (ENA) webtool.

Shaffer, D.W., Collier, W., & Ruis, A.R. A tutorial on epistemic network analysis: Analyzing the structure of connections in cognitive, social, and interaction data

This paper describes, amoung other things:

  • The theory behind ENA
  • The process by which ENA creates network models
  • Example analyses using the ENA web toolthis is an example
Shaffer, D.W. & Ruis, A.R. Epistemic network analysis: A worked example of theory-based learning analytics

This handbook chapter covers, amoung other things:

  • A theory-based approach to learning analytics
  • The process by which ENA creates network models
  • Development of ENA graphs from data to visualizations

Preparing Your Data

For a detailed guide to data formatting, see:

Shaffer, D.W. Formatting Data for Epistemic Network Analysis

For a detailed guide to data formatting

Siebert-Evenstone, A.L., Arastoopour Irgens, G., Collier, W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A.R., & Shaffer, D.W. In search of conversational grain size: Modelling semantic structure using moving stanza windows

A paper about how data formatting relates to ENA analyses

  • Data formatting for ENA
  • Model development from data in ENA
  • Explanation of stanza

Worked Examples

The following are implementation of ENA in different settings with different forms of data

Eagan, B., & Hamilton, E. Epistemic Network Analysis of an International Digital Makerspace in Africa, Europe, and the US

This paper offers and brief analysis and considerations of basic concepts related to using ENA

R Package

Looking for more ENA functionality, or want to do your analyses in R?

rENA package

The rENA package provides greater control and customization of Epistemic Network Analysis that the ENA web tool. In addition, it offers the ability to easily connect ENA to other statistical analyses