Getting Started

To learn more about ENA as a technique and a tool, you may want to start with the following publications:

Shaffer, D.W.  Quantitative Ethnography.

Shaffer, D.W., Collier, W., & Ruis, A.R.  A tutorial on epistemic network analysis: Analyzing the structure of connections in cognitive, social, and interaction data

Shaffer, D.W. & Ruis, A.R.  Epistemic network analysis: A worked example of theory-based learning analytics.


Preparing Your Data

For a detailed guide to data formatting, see:

Shaffer, D.W. Formatting Data for Epistemic Network Analysis.

To learn more about how data formatting relates to ENA analyses, see:

Siebert-Evenstone, A.L., Arastoopour Irgens, G., Collier, W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A.R., & Shaffer, D.W. In search of conversational grain size: Modelling semantic structure using moving stanza windows.


Worked Examples

Quardokus Fisher, K. Hirshfield, L., Siebert-Evenstone, A., Arastoopour, G., & Koretsky, M.  Network analysis of interactions between students and an instructor during design meetings

Wooldridge, A.R, Carayon, P., Shaffer, D.W., & Eagan, B. Quantifying the qualitative with epistemic network analysis: A human factors case study of task-allocation communication in a primary care team.

Eagan, B., & Hamilton, E. Epistemic Network Analysis of an International Digital Makerspace in Africa, Europe, and the US

Andrist, S., Collier, W., Gleicher, M., Mutlu, B., & Shaffer, D.W. Look together: analyzing gaze coordination with epistemic network analysis.


R Package 

Looking for more ENA functionality, or want to do your analyses in R? Get the rENA package here.

If you use any products, services, or data developed or provided by Epistemic Analytics in your research or in any publications or presentations, please read our guidelines for acknowledgment.